ESP is most commonly
called the "sixth sense." It is sensory information that an
individual receives which comes beyond the ordinary five senses sight,
hearing, smell, taste, and touch. It can provide the individual with
information of the present, past, and future; as it seems to originate
in a second, or alternate reality.
The term "ESP" was used in 1870 by Sir Richard Burton. A French
researcher, Dr. Paul Joire, in 1892 used the term ESP to describe the
ability of person who had been hypnotized or were in a trance state
to externally sense things without using their ordinary senses.
However, the phenomena of ESP activity has been indicated much earlier,
some say even in Biblical times. Although there is no clear evidence
as to the certainty of the phenomena, it has attracted the attention
and enthusiasm of many throughout the centuries.
In the 1920's a Munich
ophthalmologist, Dr. Rudolph Tischner, used ESP in describing the "externalization
of sensibility." Then in the 1930s the American parapsychologist
J. B. Rhine popularized the term to include psychic phenomena similar
to sensory functions. Rhine was among the first parapsychologists to
test ESP phenomena in the laboratory.
The first systematic study of ESP was conducted in 1882, when the Society
for Psychical Research was founded in London. The journals of this society
Proceedings and Journal were published as well as other publications
in the United States and the Netherlands. Soon other countries were
reporting similar findings.
However, these first studies of ESP were rarely experimental. The studies
consisted of mostly spontaneous incidents that were located. Many of
the individuals studied were self-claimed "sensitives" or
psychics. Rarely were they examined under anything resembling laboratory
conditions. The researchers conducting the examinations resembled prosecuting
lawyers. The subjects were bombarded with questions, those standing
up the best were judged creditable.
The Rhine Experiments
The first card-guessing ESP experiments were conducted by Rhine at Duke
University in 1930. The cards consisted of five designs, now called
ESP symbols, a square, a circle, a plus sign, a five pointed star, and
a set of three wavy lines. The symbols were printed singly, in black
ink, on cards resembling playing cards.
In the classic Rhine experiments on ESP, the subject tries to guess
or "call" the order of the five symbols when they are randomly
arranged in a deck of 25 ESP cards. The likelihood of calling a card
correctly by chance is one in five. Therefore, it is possible to calculate
how often a particular score is likely to occur by chance in a given
number of calls. It was Rhine's argument that when his subjects made
high scores that could be expected by chance only once in a thousand
tries, or once in a million, they displayed "extrachance"
results, or ESP.
The early experiments faced several criticisms. Two were automatically
dismissed: (1) The statistics were unsound which was refuted by the
president of the American Mathematical Association. (2) That ESP is
a physical impossibility which begs the question.
criticisms were accepted by Rhine which he used to improve his experiments.
Examples are: (1) There may have been sensory cues. An example of this
is that if a strong light shined on the back of the ESP cards, it might
be possible to see the symbol through the back. Currently to avoid this
possibility the target card is covered by an oblique shielding, or kept
far from the subject. (2) An experimenter that knows the target might
whisper it or otherwise give a cue to the subject. Presently no one
in contact with the subject knows the target. (3) More hits might be
recorded than actually occurred.. Currently hits and responses are recorded
by machine or by someone not knowing either.
Three criticisms remain: (1) The "file drawer" effect. Only
favorable results are published. Larger experimental data like one in
a million make this unlikely. (2) Results are inconsistent and not repeatable.
This can be remedied statistically. (3) Charges of fraud can be refuted
by other reputable investigators obtaining similar results.
There was a finding which seemed puzzling until better understood. While
some label it "missing-ESP" it might be thought of as reverse-ESP
too. It is found among subject who dislike ESP. Even though the subjects
were consciously trying to achieve good scores, they scored lower than
chance. An unconscious factor seemed to come into play here. Experimenters
have found they can predict higher scores for some groups (for example,
those who are interested and relaxed), and lower scores for other groups
(those who show fear, negativity, or boredom). The factor of missing-ESP
indicates why ESP data is unreliable.
More recently computer games are increasingly being used to test ESP.
The computer is programmed so that a random series determines the targets,
and the subjects attempt to outguess the computer.
Another factor that researchers and experimenters must watch for in
ESP and all psychical experiments is preconceived or previously learned
knowledge. This concerns any knowledge which might influence the subject's
activity. For example, a person might say she sensed her son would telephone
her on that certain day at that specific time. If the son had previously
called her in such a fashion, then her sensation must be suspect for
it might have been based upon knowledge of her son's previous performance.
A person might strongly feel that he would receive an email message
from a friend on a certain day, and he does; but, can this be considered
a ESP phenomenon considering that this person had not heard from the
other person for sometime and was expecting the message. The point being
made is that when dealing with psychic phenomena all factors must be
considered when examining the performance.
In New Frontiers of the Mind (1937) Rhine said that ESP experiments
were changing the way people thought the mind sensed information. Historically,
learned people held the human mind received information through the
ordinary five senses and that, therefore, the mind is subject to the
laws of the mechanical world. Laboratory tests have attempted to determine
the existence of ESP, and discover the physical mechanism by which it
operates. "The mind has been equated with the brain, and scientists
search to discover how ESP registers in the brain/mind."
However, increasing evidence is demonstrating that ESP does exist, but
it cannot be explained or quantified by physical laws; and furthermore,
that the mind (consciousness) and the brain are two separate entities.
Simultaneously, research in quantum physics points to the existence
of a second, nonmaterial universe. So, the time is fast approaching
when Western scientists must come to terms with the Eastern mystical
concept: "that an extrasensory force exists in another reality,
and intersects and integrates with the physical world."
In function, ESP is dissimilar to the ordinary senses. There are no
locations that govern the other senses which receive information through
various parts of the body; and it is not dependent on any of the other
five senses. ESP is independent of such factors as geography, time,
intelligence, age, or education.
ESP has been given various names. In the 19th century is was called
"cryptesthesia," later it was labeled "relesthesia"
which since became clairvoyance, or "seeing in the distance."
It was Rhine who coined the term "general extrasensory perception"
(GESP) to include both telepathy and clairvoyance. Later the term psi
was designated to cover ESP and PK.
It was researcher Louisa E. Rhine who proposed the theory that ESP starts
in the unconscious, a storehouse of memories, hopes and fears. At this
point a contact is made between the objective world and the center of
the mind. The person remains unaware of this contact until or unless
the information is brought to the conscious level. Also, the psychiatrist
Carl G. Jung proposed a similar theory that the conscious mind has subliminal
psychic access to the collective unconscious, a vast repository of accumulative
wisdom and experience of the human race.
Others theories attempting
to explain ESP have been produced. One such theory involved macrophages,
cells present in connective tissue, lymph nodes, and bone marrow and
tied to nerve endings. The person thought these might be the body's
ESP organs, sending and receiving impressions below the normal perceptive
level. Such cells are more sensitive and active during childhood, but
deteriorate without proper diet.
Some theories involve the discussion of two subconsciousnesses, the
second one sometimes called the superconsciousness, soul, subliminal
self, transcendent ego, dream self and several other terms. The argument
rests on the hypothesis that two realities exist, the physical one and
a second one. ESP can occur when there is a integration between both
realities. This occurs infrequently only when the barriers between the
realities are broken which does not happen often because if it did all
unconscious thought would flood and overflow the conscious mind. A condition
which the mind could not withstand.
When considering types or forms that ESP might take, dreams become an
important factor, especially in relationship to the theory of two realities.
Upon this basis dreams were separated into two categories: realistic,
vivid (having detailed imagery of the information conveyed) and intuition,
which includes "gut feelings", forebodings and premonitions;
and unrealistic dreams containing fantastical imagery and symbols. Hallucinations
that relayed visual and auditory information also were included. Rhine
suggested the reason for dreams being efficient carriers of ESP messages
is because the barriers surrounding the conscious mind appear to be
It has been discovered that the natural tendency for ESP in individuals
can be distorted by previous prejudices, thoughts, and conditioning.
Likewise, inaccurate ESP messages may be the result of distortions and
blockages of the conscious mind. However, in times of crisis such as
accidents and death of loved ones, ESP messages seem to occur spontaneously.
It is theorized that perhaps trauma and shock enable negative information
to penetrate the subliminal barriers more easily than happy information.
There are theories concerning individuals who possess ESP and how they
acquired this ability. One theory holds that some people such as seers,
prophets and diviners were born with the gift which was inherited by
their relatives. Another theory holds that it is 'a primordial sense
which has decreased in populations as their cultures advanced'. Still
another theory claims ESP is a supersense which evolves in the nervous
Psychical research does support the theory that everyone is born with
ESP capability, though some may possess more than others. Most people
have experienced at least one ESP experience in their lives. It was
found in a survey published in 1987 by the University of Chicago's National
Opinion Research Council, that 67 percent of all adult Americans believed
they have experienced ESP. Eleven years earlier the figure was 58 percent.
It was thought the increase indicates an increased acceptance of the
possibility of ESP among the general public.
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